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Showing posts with label Pakistan. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pakistan. Show all posts

2 Qaumi Nazariya Jis Per Pakistan Bana (قومی نظریہ: جس پر پاکستان بنا 2 ) | Maulana Muhammad Rafi Usmani

Muhammad Rafi Usmani (Urdu: محمد رفیع عثمانی‎, Muḥammad Rafī' Us̱mānī) is Pakistani Sunni Islamic researcher who fills in as President of Darul Uloom Karachi. He has wrote books in Urdu and Arabic.
He is the Brother of Notable Islamic Scholar Mufti Taqi Usmani
  • The three frameworks of financial matters in Europe : feudalism, free enterprise, communism and their authentic foundation.
  • Islāmī maʻīshat aur ṣanʻatī taʻalluqāt , investigation of the religious parts of financial matters and mechanical relations in Islam.
  • Ḥayāt-I Muftī-yi Aʻẓam : faqīhulʻaṣr Muftī Aʻẓam Pākistān, on the life and works of Muftī Muḥammad Shafī, his dad.
  • Javāhirulfiqh, gathering of writer's academic compositions on Islamic law.
  • ʻAlāmāt-I qiyāmat aur nuzūl-I Masīḥ, gathering of Islamic lessons on the coming of Jesus and the day of judgment.
  • Tīn Islāmī mulkon̲ kā safar nāmah, Anbiyāʼ kī sarzamīn men̲, travelogs to Saudi Arab, Syria and Jordan.
  • Insignificant murshid Ḥaẓrat-I ʻārifī, memoir of Muḥammad ʻAbdulḥaʼī ʻārifī,1898-1986, a religious researcher from the Deobandi School of idea.
  • ʻAurat kī sarbarāhī kī sharʻī ḥais̲īyat, analysis on a lady turning into the leader of an Islamic state as per Islamic law.
Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی‎, Muhammad Taqī 'Usmāni, brought into the world 3 October 1943) (additionally spelled Uthmani) is a deobandi Hanafi Maturidi Islamic researcher from Pakistan. He filled in as a judge on the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from 1981 to 1982 and the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan somewhere in the range of 1982 and 2002. He is a specialist in the fields of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh), financial matters, Tasawwuf, and hadith. He additionally held various positions on the Shariah Boards of esteemed Islamic foundations, and was instrumental in the composition of the Hudood Ordinances under General Zia ul-Haq. He is the sibling of Islamic researchers Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Muhammad Wali Razi, and Muhammad Razi Usmani, just as of the Urdu artist Muhammad Zaki Kaifi. He has composed interpretations of the Qur'an in both English and Urdu. He was given the title of Shaykh al-Islām by his educator Mawlana Sahban Mahmood.
Muhammad Taqi Usmani was conceived on 5 October 1943 (5 Shawwal 1362 AH) in Deoband, a city in the Saharanpur region of Uttar Pradesh, British India.
In 1958, Usmani passed the Fazil-e-Arabi (Arabic language assessment) with unique excellence, directed by the Punjab Board.
In 1959 he moved on from the 'Alim course at Darul Uloom Karachi.
He at that point had some expertise in fiqh (Islamic statute) under the direction of his dad, the Mufti of Darul Uloom Karachi, Muhammad Shafi, accepting his Takhassus degree (equal to a PhD) in fiqh and ifta (issuance of Islamic lawful feelings) from Darul Uloom Karachi in 1961, procuring the title of Mufti.
He moved on from the University of Karachi with a Bachelor of Arts in 1964, at that point got a Bachelor of Laws with unique excellence from the University of Karachi in 1967. He got a Master of Arts in Arabic writing, with unique excellence, from the University of Punjab in 1970.
Usmani got ijaza to encourage hadith from Islamic researchers including Muhammad Shafi, Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi, Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Saleemullah Khan, Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhianvi, Sahban Mahmud, Zafar Ahmad Usmani, Muhammad Zakariya Kandhalvi, Hasan al-Mahshat, Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah, Abi Al-Faid Muhammad Yasin Al-Fadani Ash-Shafi'i, and others.
His Teachers likewise incorporate Mufti Wali Hasan Tonki, the Grand Mufti of Jami' ul Uloom Al-Islamiyyah. He respected the scholarly techniques for Mufti Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah, of whom he composed an Orbituary to after his destruction in his Nuqoosh-e-Raftghaan.
He is extremely dear companions with his instructor's nephew Dr. 'Abdu-s-Sattar Abu Ghuddah.
Usmani spearheaded the idea of Islamic banking in Pakistan when he set up the Meezan Bank. Usmani has created various books in Arabic, Urdu, and English on Islamic themes notwithstanding countless articles on Islamic banking and account distributed in various diaries and magazines.
As indicated by The Muslim 500 site, he is a main researcher of Islamic Finance, "Usmani's central impact originates from his situation as a worldwide specialist on the issue of Islamic account."
In March 2004, United Arab Emirates Vice President and Prime Minister Mohammed container Rashid Al Maktoum exhibited an honor to Taqi Usmani in acknowledgment of his lifetime administration and accomplishment in Islamic money during the yearly International Islamic Finance Forum (IIFF) in Dubai.
As per the custom of the researchers of Deoband and perceiving the significance of tasawwuf, Usmani's bay'ah was acknowledged by Abdul Hai Arifi and Muhammad Masihullah Khan. Usmani is as of now a coach to various otherworldly wannabes everywhere throughout the world and conveys week after week addresses on personal development at Darul Uloom Karachi on Sundays between Asr Salaah and Maghrib Salaah.
He at present educates Sahih al-Bukhari, fiqh, and Islamic financial aspects at Darul Uloom Karachi and is known for his Islahi Khutbat. He was a key individual from a group of researchers which announced Ahmadis non-Muslims by Pakistan's National Assembly during the time of previous Pakistani president, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, during the 1970s. During the administration of General Zia ul Haq, he was instrumental in drafting laws relating to Hudood, Qisas meaning reprisal in kind or (tit for tat, and Diyya (blood cash).
http://www.mediafire.com/file/tvxki0jwcivs0ot/2_Qaumi_Nazariya_Jis_Per_Pakistan_Bana_-_Maulana_Muhammad_Rafi_Usmani.pdf/file

How to join PM’s ‘Corona Relief Tigers Force’?

Head administrator Imran Khan has propelled 'Crown Relief Tiger Force' that will work in a joint effort with common organization and armed force to contain the spread of crown infection.
Uncommon Assistant to Prime Minister on Youth Affairs Usman Dar has begun deal with PM's orders in regards to the Corona Relief Tiger Force.
Enrollment for the power will be begun from 31st March and will proceed till tenth of April.
The power will enlist adolescents who's age will be over 18 years. The power won't just stock proportions in crisis circumstance yet will likewise recognize the hoarders.
The volunteers of Tiger Force will help convey nourishment to regions under lock down, other than spreading attention to general society and to watch individuals in isolate.
Computerized enlistment structure has been made for the enrollment and young people from every single ideological group can join the power.
Crown Relief Tiger Force will be set up in each association committee.

The Nandipur Power Project | Report on Nandipur Power Project

The Nandipur Power Project | Report on Nandipur Power Project



Summary

Nandipur Power Project is a 425 MW (with potential of 1,000 MW) combined cycle thermal power plant situated at Nandipur near Gujranwala in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Being constructed by the China Dongfang Electric Corporation, the project was completed in March 2015. The estimated cost of the project was Rs. 23 billion ($574 million) when it was announced, which according to the Government (PMLN), escalated to Rs. 57.38 billion due to delay and negligence of the previous (PPP) Government. However it is claimed by some that the actual cost reached up to Rs. 84 billion.
Shahbaz Sharif wrote in a national newspaper about the project: “In the middle of the 2010, a major chunk of the project was almost complete and it seemed as if the project would be over on time as we believed there would not be any monetary issues but we were disappointed.”
Reports Attached:
Practical Steps: Nandipur Power Project kicks off
Commission report on Nandipur confined to archives

Introduction:

Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 20 independent power producers that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.
For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Pakistan's electricity producers are now seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors which indicates it to be one of the key unresolved issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country faces growing shortages.

History of Wapda Power:

At the time of independence, Pakistan inherited 60MW of power generation capability for a population of 31.5 million, yielding 4.5 units per capita consumption. Twelve years later, when WAPDA was created in 1959, the generation capacity had increased to 119 MW. By that time country had entered the phase of development, which required a dependable and sold infrastructure, electricity being its most significant part. The task of power developement was undertaken by WAPDA for executing a number of hydel and thermal generation projects, a matching transmission network and a distribution system, which could sustain the load of rapidly increasing demand of electricity.
The effects of WAPDA's professional approach to find the solution to multifarious problems did not take long to show. After first five years of its operation by 1964-65, the electricity generation capability rose to 636 MW from 119 in 1959, and power generation to about 2,500 MKWH from 781 MKWH. Number of consumers in 1959 to 688 thousand in 1965. As many as 609 villages had electricity supplied to them by 1959, increasing to 1882 in 1965. The rapid progress witnessed a new life to the social, technical and economic structures of the country, mechanized agriculture started, industrialization picked up and general living standards improved.
The task of accelerating the pace of power development picked up speed and by 1970, in another five years the generating capability rose from 636 MW to 1331 MW with installation of a number of thermal and hydel power units. In the year 1980 the system capacity touched 3000 MW which rapidly rose to over 7000 MW in 1990-91. Now the total generation capacity from WAPDA's own hydel and thermal sources after completion of Chashma Hydro Power Plant plus generation from independent power procedures stands at 15764 MW.

Practical Steps: Nandipur Power Project kicks off

A cute energy shortage has been the biggest hurdle in economic progress of the country for a couple of decades. Every government in its tenure made efforts to get rid of power outages but nothing worked out. In fact, the crisis turned severe in the five-year tenure of the previous government as the people took to the streets to protest against prolonged outages. The offices of the PEPCO were also attacked many times.
According to a press release, unfortunately, the previous government did not make sincere efforts, which were urgently needed, to deal with the crisis. It a pity that the officials associated with the power energy projects, were involved in corruption scandals, which discouraged public greatly.The Punjab government in the five-year term of the PPP government tried to deal with the issue but failed at every stage due to problems created by the central government, for instance, Nandipur Power Project.Shahbaz Sharif wrote in a national newspaper about the project: “In the middle of the 2010, a major chunk of the project was almost complete and it seemed as if the project would be over on time as we believed there would not be any monetary issues but we were disappointed.”

Commission report on Nandipur confined to archives:

ISLAMABAD: The present faux pas on the Nandipur power project apart, a report prepared by a Supreme Court appointed commission that had found a loss of Rs113 billion to the national exchequer and the negligent elements responsible for this whopping damage in this project, has been consigned to the national archives to rust, unlikely to be retrieved for implementation.
The findings formulated by the Justice (retd) RehmatHussainJafferi commission before the present government came in place had held that the public kitty was deprived of Rs113 billion due to the negligence of the law ministry of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) government that caused inordinate delay in giving necessary approval to the Nandipurproject. The commission had been nominated by an apex court bench presided over by the then Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry on a petition filed by Khawaja M Asif, currently the Water & Power Minister, who was then in the opposition. He had sought punishment for those responsible for the criminal delay.There has been no action whatsoever by any anti-corruption agency on the 94-page report. The current government never showed any penchant for any proceedings in this case. As a result, the findings are lying unattended. Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif has now invited the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) to look into any kind of corruption in the Nandipur project by his government, and has offered himself for accountability.
The Jafferi commission had ruled that there was negligence on the part of the executive authorities of the federal law ministry, which delayed the completion of the projects.It said that an approximate loss of more than Rs1l3 billion was caused to the national exchequer and the law ministry is responsible for causing delay in completion of the documents.According to the report, the law ministry had not cleared the issuance of sovereign guarantee of the finance ministry to the contractor, leading to the termination of work. Originally, the Nandipur project was forecasted to be completed by April 2011.Babar Awan was the law minister and Justice (retd) RiazKayani, who is now a member of the Election Commission of Pakistan, was the law secretary when the delay occurred.It was stated in the report, filed in the Supreme Court, that the sovereign guarantee was not vetted by the law ministry for years, which forced the Chinese firm to cancel the contract.Immediately after assuming office, the Nawaz Sharif government had started taking measures to kick-start work on the project.
On completion, Nandipur power project (originally costing $329 million) was to add to the national grid 425 MW. It was also pointed out that during a meeting of Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif with a Turkish delegation at the time one of the delegates had drawn his attention towards the inordinate delay in the execution of Nandipur power project.
Shahbaz Sharif had then asked his chief secretary to take up the matter with the concerned federal ministries of the PPP government. The chief secretary had written a letter that said energy crisis was one of the biggest challenges Pakistan has been facing for decades, and it is getting acute every day, thereby causing a scorching impact on economy, industry, agriculture and almost every sphere of life, which has slowed down the economic growth.The apex court had also then questioned the federal finance secretary regarding the non-issuance of sovereign guarantee. However, the court had been informed that several letters had been written to the law and finance ministries for issuance of sovereign guarantee to clear the machinery from the port but in vain.
September 11, 2015

Conclusions:

The focus of an audit report has to be the over-expenditure of a massive $518 million. How did the government end up spending an additional $518 million on a project that was originally estimated to cost a total of $329 million? Just imagine: over the past eight years $518,000,000 of Pakistani taxpayers’ money has evaporated in thin air and an audit report authored by the auditor general of Pakistan (AGP) is now talking about “inflation and exchange rate fluctuations”. The cost has gone up from $329 million to $847 million and that has absolutely nothing to do with ‘exchange rate fluctuations’.
Congratulations, the Nandipur Power Project is “producing 425MW of electricity”, claims the minister of water and power. On May 20, 2014 the chief executive officer of the Northern Power Generation Company, the company that owns the Nandipur Power Project, filed a petition with the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) claiming that the generation cost stands at Rs18.17 per kWh while Nepra has allowed a tariff of Rs11.30 per kWh. For the record, the Nandipur Power Project may indeed be producing 425MW of electricity but the government would have to provide a subsidy of Rs2.5 billion per month every month of the year for a total of Rs30 billion a year. Or alternatively, the circular debt is bound to go up by a wholesome Rs30 billion a year. On May 21, 2013 the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) blacklisted Dongfang Electric by posting a warning for all “other companies not to carry out business with Dongfang Electric Corporation.” How much is $518 million? Well, Balochistan’s annual education budget for its 13 million residents is $385 million. And Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s annual health budget for its 28 million residents is $300 million.
December 12, 2015

Recommendations:

We should increase the numbers of power plants.
We should increases the electricity capacity of power plants for the progress of our country.
We should made new power plants like KotAddu Power Company Limited & Bin Qasim Power Plant I also increases the numbers of small power plants.
We should buildup the hydro-power units to increases the cheap electrical generation because it is need for our country.

We as A Muslims & A Generation Must do this to Our Generation

We Muslims Must do this to Our Generation

Woman is only for one man, cannot go to another if meeting multiple people creates poison inside the woman and she AIDS
The actions of non-Muslims are to destroy others;
Remember that adultery is death, even in the case of AIDS;
Must read and share
Protect Your Children from the Curse Be part of the campaign to root out evil;
Hear a bit about the sex education that Europe is pushing our schools and colleges and universities towards the bottom of the hell! Read!
Pakistan has become one of the most watched porn movies in the world.
When 60% of our nation is comprised of youth.
The unbelievers of the world have united to discredit this nation.
This is one of their 5 Generation Wars strategy x effects on the video community;
  • Increasing the number of children
  • Brain cancer
  • Increasing Divorce
  • The End of Positive Thinking
  • And getting older
When we are through social media Can build a dam Tax on mobile load Can bring justice to Zainab Social media can stop the campaign of blasphemy against the Pak army so We can permanently close all sites in Pakistan.
Earlier today, it was completely closed by Sultan Salah Ayubi
The Qur'an says:
"You will be counted with those whom you follow"
Does one of your forward messages make you a Sultan's soldier?
Our goal:
All porn sites are permanently banned.
#Block_All_Porn_Websites_in_Pakistan
People also use 24 mobiles every day. Also use this message today for Forward and SHARE until dirty movies are completely blocked in Pakistan.
Get done.
Those who want to share this POST with all of your GROUPS. General Chat Lounge Assume that you share in at least 20 groups
Brothers & Sisters share Islam on social media;
  • WhatsApp
  • IMO
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Let's work together today
  • Improve the future of your generation
  • Clean Pakistan from dirt.
This message must be on every Facebook ID
Anyone who does not want to share it, surely does not want our generation to escape this mess.
I need your help If that happens, our country can be saved from many evils. And our Prophet and our Lord may be pleased with us
Read this important message for God Sake and reach out to other Muslims and show mercy to your people.
Thanks!

Most Important Points About PAKISTAN

#MOST_IMPORTANT_POINTS_ABOUT_PAKISTAN
Iran was first country to recognize Pakistan.
Pakistan opened its first embassy in Iran.
Egypt was first country to open its embassy in Pakistan. 
First governor of State Bank was Zahid Hussain.
First Lady governor was Rana Liaquat Ali (Sindh) 1973-1976.
First lady federal minister was Vikarun Nisa Noor (Tourism).
First state to join Pakistan was Bahawul Pur, 1954.
Pakistan cricket team first visited England. (chk: India)
First captain of cricket team was Abdul Hafeez Kardar.
First century was completed by Nazar Mohammd against India in 1954 in Lacknow.
First Woman University is located in Rawalpindi.
First governor of Punjab was Francis Moody.
First CM of Punjab was Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot.
First Governor of Sindh was Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah.
First CM of Sindh was Ayub Khoro.
First Governor of Baluchistan was Lt: General Riaz Hussain.
First CM of Baluchistan was Attaullah Mengal.
First Chief Justice of Pakistan was Sir Abdur Rasheed.
First PM of Azad Kashmir was Abdul Hamid Khan.
First President of AJK was Sardar Ibrahim Khan.
First Commander-in-Chief of Pak Army was Frank Miservi.
First chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee was General Mohd Sahrif.
First chief of Staff of armed forces was General Tikka Khan.
First governor State Bank was Zahid Hussain.
First daily newspaper is Amroz 1947.
First lady pilot was Shukriya Khanum.
First museum of Pak established in Karachi in 1950.
First Bank was United Bank (7th August, 1947)
First Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan was Mr. Khan F.M.Khan (25th March,1956)
Election Commision was created on 23rd March, 1956 under Article 137 of 1956 consititution.
First Muslim Commander in Chief of Pakistan was Ayub Khan.
First Radio Station established was of Karachi.
First T.V station was setup at Lahore on Nov: 26, 1964.
First lady Lady Major General in Pak: Dr. Shahida Malik.
First Space satellite was launched by Pakistan in 1990.
First private TV Channel STN launched in 1990.
First Chairman Senate was Habibullah Khan.
First woman judge of High Court was Majida Rizvi.
First constructed barrage of Pakistan Sukkur Barrage.
First Secretary General of Pakistan was Ch. Mohd Ali.
First bio-gas plant was installed in 1974.
First woman bank established on Dec: 1, 1989.
Khan Qayyum Khan was called the iron man of (KPK) NWFP.
Badshahi mosque built in 1670 A.D.
Largest Hockey stadium is National Hockey Stadium Lahore.
First minority minister of Pakistan was Joginder Nath Mandal held the portfolio of law.
Largest railway tunnel is Khojak.
Smallest dam of Pakistan is Warsak dam.
Largest fort of Pakistan is ―Rani Kot.
Nishan-e- Pakistan is the highest civil award of Pakistan.
Second highest civil award is Hilal-e- Pakistan.
Ayub National Park (Rawalpinidi) is the largest Park in Pakistan.
Jinnah Awami League was the first opposition party of our country. 
Liaquat ali Khan visited America in May 1950.
Awami League was found by Abdul Hameded Bhashani in 1950.
The first Pakistan women hockey match in Pakistan was Played in 1985.
Khojak is the largest Railway Tunnel of Pakistan.
Lahore Museum is the biggest Museum in Pakistan.
Largest Railway station is Lahore.
Highest Pass is Muztag Pass which connects Gilgit to Xinkiyang.
Largest canal is Lloyd Barrage Canal or Sukkur Barrage or Lance Down Pull built in 1936.
Largest Cement Plant is Lucky Cement Plant near Luki Marwat.
Largest road is Shahrah-e- Pakistan.
Shortest river is Ravi.
Smallest division is Karachi.
Largest division is Kalat.
Largest division of Sindh is Therparkar.
Habib Bank Plaza Karachi has 23 stories (345 ft).
Minar-e- Pakistan is 196 ft, 8 inches high.
Pakistan has its longest boundary with Afghanistan.
Pakistan is 34th largest country in the world, 6th population wise.
Smallest civil award is Tamg-e-Khidmat.
Highest dam is Mangla dam.
Pakistan expedition to Antarctica reached on 5 Jan, 1991 established Jinnah Research Station.
Longest tenure as Governor General was Ghulam Mohammad.
Longest tenure as President was Ayub Khan.
Longest period of rule was of Zia-ul-haq.
Shortest tenure as PM of Ayub Khan (3 days) then Shujaat Hussain (47 days).
Shortest tenure as President is of Bhutto.
Shortest tenure as Governor General is of Quaid-e- Azam.
Largest library is Quaid-e-Azam library.
Largest University is in Punjab.
The only non-military shaheed to receive Nishan-e-Haider was Subaidar Lalik Jan he belonged to NLI.
Highest peak of Sulaiman mountains is Takht-e-Sulaiman.
Highest peak is K2 (Goodwin Austin 5,611 meters) (28238 ft).
2nd largest glacier of Pakistan is Batura.
Largest Island of Pakistan is Manora.
Smallest city is Jehlum.
Rainiest city is RawalPindi.
Rainiest place is Muree.
First Medical College was Nishtar Medical College.
Smallest Dam is Warsak dam.
Largest mountain range is Karakoram.
First private airline of Pakistan is Hajvari.
Pak‘s Second largest city is Lahore.
Zafarullah khan was the first foreign minister of Pakistan.
Keenjhar is the largest man made (artificial) lake in Pakistan.
Manchar Lake is the biggest lake of Pakistan.
Trich Mir is the highest peak of Hindu Kush.
In Pakistan, first woman bank was established in the year 1989.
The highest point of the Khyber Pass is Landhi Kotal.
The first atomic power station of Pakistan was installed in Karachi.
The First President of America who made an official visit to Pakistan was Dwight D.Eishenhower.
Largest airline is PIA.
Largest airport is Quaid-e-Azam Internationl Airport, Karachi.
Largest canal is Lloyd Barrage Canal.
Largest dam is Terbela.
Largest desert is Thar.
Largest district is Khuzdar (Baluchistan).
Largest industial unit is Pakistan Steel Mill.
Largest industry is Textile.
Largest island is Manora (Karachi).
Largest Jungle is Changa Manga (Kasur).
Largest lake (natural) is Manchar.
Largest library is Pujab Public Library, Lahore.
Largest mine is Salt Mines of Khewra.
Largest motorway is Lahore-Islamabad.
Largest museum is National Meseum, Karachi.
Largest circulated urdu newspaper is ―Jang‖, Enghish is ―The News‖.
Largest nuclear reactor is KANUPP, Karachi.
Largest oil field is Dhurnal Oil Field.
Largest Radio Station is in Islamabad.
Largest university is Punjab University, Lahore.
Largest railway platform is of Rohri.
Longest railway track is from Karachi to Landi Kotal.
Longest road is from Karachi to Peshawar.
First TV station in Pakistan started at Lahore.
Pakistan‘s first radio station was set up at Karachi. 
Mountbatten came to India in March 1947.
Mountbatten was an officer in British Navy.
Plan for the Separation of Indo Pakistan was announced on 23rd June 1947.
Election to the First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan took place in 1946.
The first Cabinet of Pakistan consisted of 7 members.
Finance Portfolio in the first Cabinet was held by Malik Ghulam Muhammad.
Approximate population of Pakistan at the inception in 1947 was Seven 7 crores.
First census of Pakistan was held in 1951.
Population of west Pakistan in 1951was 34 million.
The only country to oppose Pakistan‘s entrance into the UNO in1947 was Afghanistan.
Total area of Jammu and Kashmir in 1947 was 84,471 sq. miles. 
India stopped the passage of water from the rivers Ravi and Sutluj in April 1948.
Amir of Kuwait he was the first head of state to visit Pakistan in 1947.
Quaid- e -Azam relief fund was set up in September 1947.
At the time of division the cash balances of undivided India stood at about Rs. 4,000 million.
India and Pakistan mutually came to an agreement that Pakistan would get Rs. 750 crore as her share.
Only Rs. 200 crors had been paid as an interim installment.
Francis Moody was the first Governor of Punjab.
Governor Moody imposed the Governor Rule in Punjab in January 1949.
Pakistan Fund was setup by Quaid in June 1947.
State Bank of Pakistan was inaugurated by Quaid in July 1948.
The initial assets of SBP were equal to three Crore.
Karachi was declared Federal area by the legislative Assembly in May 1948.
Pakistan‘s flag was designed by two brothers and name of one of them is Altaf Hussain.
White strip in the flag was added in August 1947. When was moon and star added in the flag February 1949.
The Quaid delivered his last message to the nation on 27th August, 1948.

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan | English

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan - English
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان), otherwise called the 1973 Constitution, is the preeminent law of Pakistan. Drafted by the administration of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with extra help from the nation's resistance groups, it was affirmed by the Parliament on 10 April and confirmed on 14 August 1973.
The Constitution is proposed to direct Pakistan's law and its political culture, and framework. It distinguishes the express (its physical presence and its fringes), individuals and their major rights, state's sacred law and orders, and furthermore the protected structure and foundation of the organizations and the nation's outfitted forces. The initial three sections set up the guidelines, command, and separate forces of the three parts of the administration: a bicameral lawmaking body; an official branch administered by the Prime Minister as CEO; and a zenith government legal executive headed by Supreme Court. The Constitution assigns the President of Pakistan as a formal Head of State who is to speak to the solidarity of the state. The initial six articles of the constitution plot the political framework as bureaucratic parliamentary republic framework; just as Islam as its state religion. The Constitution likewise epitomizes arrangements stipulating the legitimate framework's consistence with Islamic directives contained in the Quran and Sunnah.
The Parliament can't make any laws which might be hostile or in spite of the Constitution, anyway the Constitution itself might be corrected by a 66% greater part in both the places of the bicameral Parliament, not at all like the past authoritative records of 1956 and 1962. It has been altered after some time, and latest motivations for political overhauls and changes has been revised. Albeit upheld in 1973, Pakistan, be that as it may, commends the selection of the constitution on 23 March—when the principal set was proclaimed in 1956—every single year as Republic Day.
The Constitution of Pakistan is yet to be confined by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly, I don't have the foggiest idea what a definitive state of the constitution will be, yet I am certain that it will be of a majority rule type, exemplifying the fundamental standards of Islam. Today these are as appropriate in real life as these were 1300 years back. Islam and its optimism have shown us majority rule government. It has shown balance of man, equity and reasonable play to everyone. We are the inheritors of these heavenly customs and are completely alive to our duties and commitments as designers of things to come constitution of Pakistan.
http://www.mediafire.com/file/3lsq8inh9vu140x/The_Constitution_of_the_Islamic_Republic_of_Pakistan_-_English.pdf/file

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan | Urdu

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan - English
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان), otherwise called the 1973 Constitution, is the preeminent law of Pakistan. Drafted by the administration of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with extra help from the nation's resistance groups, it was affirmed by the Parliament on 10 April and confirmed on 14 August 1973.
The Constitution is proposed to direct Pakistan's law and its political culture, and framework. It distinguishes the express (its physical presence and its fringes), individuals and their major rights, state's sacred law and orders, and furthermore the protected structure and foundation of the organizations and the nation's outfitted forces. The initial three sections set up the guidelines, command, and separate forces of the three parts of the administration: a bicameral lawmaking body; an official branch administered by the Prime Minister as CEO; and a zenith government legal executive headed by Supreme Court. The Constitution assigns the President of Pakistan as a formal Head of State who is to speak to the solidarity of the state. The initial six articles of the constitution plot the political framework as bureaucratic parliamentary republic framework; just as Islam as its state religion. The Constitution likewise epitomizes arrangements stipulating the legitimate framework's consistence with Islamic directives contained in the Quran and Sunnah.
The Parliament can't make any laws which might be hostile or in spite of the Constitution, anyway the Constitution itself might be corrected by a 66% greater part in both the places of the bicameral Parliament, not at all like the past authoritative records of 1956 and 1962. It has been altered after some time, and latest motivations for political overhauls and changes has been revised. Albeit upheld in 1973, Pakistan, be that as it may, commends the selection of the constitution on 23 March—when the principal set was proclaimed in 1956—every single year as Republic Day.
The Constitution of Pakistan is yet to be confined by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly, I don't have the foggiest idea what a definitive state of the constitution will be, yet I am certain that it will be of a majority rule type, exemplifying the fundamental standards of Islam. Today these are as appropriate in real life as these were 1300 years back. Islam and its optimism have shown us majority rule government. It has shown balance of man, equity and reasonable play to everyone. We are the inheritors of these heavenly customs and are completely alive to our duties and commitments as designers of things to come constitution of Pakistan.
http://www.mediafire.com/file/sfw1qa0dm7mfmgh/The_Constitution_of_the_Islamic_Republic_of_Pakistan_-_Urdu.pdf/file

Pakistan ka Mustaqbil (پاکستان کا مستقبل) | Stephen P.Cohen | Urdu Translation by | Muhammad Akhrar

This is the capstone article of a bigger task that takes a gander at Pakistan's medium-term future, characterized as the following five to seven years (2012-2017). Other task components incorporate a synopsis of past expectations of Pakistan s future (Appendix) and fourteen articles authorized for a workshop at the Rockefeller Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy in May 2010. The writers were asked to quickly put forward significant factors or factors that may shape Pakistan s future and to estimate on the probable outcomes.1 This exposition pursues a similar example. After a concise outline of late improvements, it inspects various components disseminated among four classes and after that puts forward various elective prospects. It likewise investigates the methodological issues characteristic in this activity and talks about approach choices, particularly for the United States, other Western nations, Japan, and India.
About the Author
Stephen P. Cohen is a senior individual in Foreign Policy at Brookings. He came to Brookings in 1998 after a long vocation as teacher of political theory and history at the University of Illinois. Dr. Cohen recently filled in as researcher in-habitation at the Ford Foundation in New Delhi and as an individual from the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. State Department. He has likewise instructed at colleges in India, Japan and Singapore. He is as of now an individual from the National Academy of Science's Committee on International Security and Arms Control. Dr. Cohen is the writer or editorial manager of in excess of eleven books, concentrating principally on South Asian security issues. His latest book, Arming without Aiming: India modernizes its Military (coauthored with Sunil Das Gupta, 2010), centers around India's military development. Dr. Cohen got Bachelor's and Master s degrees at the University of Chicago, and a PhD from the University of Wisconsin.

Tareekh e Punjab (تاریخ پنجاب) | Sayyed Muhammad Latif | Historic Novel

The historical backdrop of Punjab goes back to the Indus human progress. The district has been attacked and controlled by various realms and races including the Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Afghans, and Mongols.
The number of inhabitants in Punjab had been pre-predominantly Hindu with substantial Buddhist minorities before it was vanquished by Muhammad receptacle Qasim in 712 AD. He was the first to convey the message of Islam to the district. It was later spread through the lessons of different Sufi holy people. The Mughals controlled the locale from 1524-1739. It was their rule that saw the development of the incredible building miracles, for example, the Badshahi Mosque and the Shalimar Gardens.
Following the decay and ensuing fall of the Mughal Empire, Maharaja Ranjeet Singh was the most noticeable leader of the Punjab. He set up the Sikh Empire that kept going from 1799-1849. Amid his time a ton of significance was given to the landed gentry and he depended upon their unwavering help to hold control. In any case, after his demise, political mayhem resulted and two of his successor maharajas were killed in the progression battle. The British Empire took control and added Punjab in 1849 after two Anglo Sikh Wars.
By ideals of its geo-political position, Punjab was one of Great Britain's most significant resources in frontier India enabling it to execute power over the various august expresses that made up the nation. The British standard saw a progression of measures being presented including the presentation of western training, another income framework and the foundation of another managerial framework. Nonetheless, the expanding disdain of the general population towards their frontier aces brought Punjab at the focal point of the rising insubordination. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 occurred in Amritsar and following the Pakistan Resolution of 1940, Punjab was at the core of the freedom battle of advanced Pakistan. Amid the segment of India in 1947, the vast majority of the Muslim overwhelmed zones proceeded to shape the present day territory of Punjab while the Sikh and Hindu ruled areas framed the Indian conditions of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
In 1955 because of the rising pressures among East and West Pakistan, Punjab lost it region status. In 1972 be that as it may, following the severance of East Pakistan and arrangement of Bangladesh, it recaptured its standing. In 1965 and 1971, Punjab saw the two wars among India and Pakistan.
Today, Punjab remains the heartbeat of the country and is at the focal point of all political and financial advancement.

Bhutto Zia and Islam | Politics English Books

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and before that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was additionally the author of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and filled in as its director until his execution in 1979.
Taught at Berkeley and Oxford, Bhutto prepared as a lawyer at Lincoln's Inn. He entered legislative issues as one of President Iskander Mirza's bureau individuals, before being allocated a few services amid President Ayub Khan's military guideline from 1958. Delegated Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was an advocate of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, prompting war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement finished threats, Bhutto dropped out with Ayub and was sacked from government. He established the PPP in 1967, challenging general decisions held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a dominant part of seats in general, the PPP won a greater part of seats in West Pakistan; the two gatherings were unfit to concur on another constitution specifically on the issue of Six Point Movement which numerous in West Pakistan saw as an approach to separate the country. Subsequent uprisings prompted the withdrawal of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-partnered India in 1971. Bhutto was given over the administration in December 1971 and crisis rule was forced. At the point when Bhutto start revamping Pakistan, he expressed his expectation was to "remake certainty and reconstruct trust in the future".
By July 1972, Bhutto had recouped 43,600 detainees of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held domain subsequent to marking the Simla Agreement. He fortified ties with China and Saudi Arabia, perceived Bangladesh, and facilitated the second Organization of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament consistently endorse another constitution in 1973, whereupon he delegated Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and changed to the recently engaged office of Prime Minister. He likewise assumed a necessary job in starting the nation's atomic programme. However, Bhutto's nationalization of quite a bit of Pakistan's juvenile enterprises, medicinal services, and instructive foundations prompted financial stagnation. In the wake of dissolving commonplace primitive governments in Balochistan was met with distress, Bhutto additionally requested a military task in the territory in 1973, causing a great many non military personnel casualties.
Regardless of common issue, the PPP won parliamentary decisions in 1977 by a wide edge. In any case, the resistance affirmed broad vote gear, and viciousness raised the nation over. On 5 July that equivalent year, Bhutto was ousted by his named armed force boss General Zia-ul-Haq in a military upset before being questionably attempted and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for approving the homicide of a political opponent. While Bhutto remains an antagonistic figure in Pakistan's history, his gathering, the PPP, stays among Pakistan's biggest, his little girl Benazir Bhutto was twice chosen Prime Minister, and his child in-law and Benazir's significant other, Asif Ali Zardari, filled in as President.
Benazir Bhutto 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the primary lady to head a fair government in a Muslim larger part country. Ideologically a liberal and a secularist, she led or co-led the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from the mid 1980s until her death in 2007.
Of blended Sindhi and Kurdish parentage, Bhutto was conceived in Karachi to a politically significant, well off noble family. Her dad, the PPP's author and pioneer Zulfikar, was chosen Prime Minister on a communist stage in 1973. Bhutto learned at Harvard University and the University of Oxford, where she was President of the Oxford Union. She came back to Pakistan, where her dad was expelled in a 1977 military upset and executed. Bhutto and her mom Nusrat assumed responsibility for the PPP and drove the nation's Movement for the Restoration of Democracy; Bhutto was more than once detained by Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's military government and afterward banished to Britain in 1984. She returned in 1986 and—impacted by Thatcherite financial aspects—changed the PPP's stage from a communist to a liberal one, preceding driving it to triumph in the 1988 race. As Prime Minister, her endeavors at change were smothered by preservationist and Islamist powers, including President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the ground-breaking military. Her organization was blamed for defilement and nepotism, and rejected by Khan in 1990. Knowledge administrations fixed that year's decision to guarantee a triumph for the moderate Islamic Democratic Alliance (IJI), after which Bhutto filled in as the Leader of the Opposition.
After the IJI legislature of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was likewise expelled on debasement allegations, Bhutto drove the PPP to triumph in the 1993 decisions. Her second term managed financial privatization and endeavors to propel ladies' rights. Her administration was harmed by a few discussions, including the death of her sibling Murtaza, a fizzled 1995 overthrow, and a further renumeration outrage including her and her significant other Asif Ali Zardari; in light of the last mentioned, the President again expelled her legislature. The PPP lost the 1997 race and in 1998 she went into self-banish in Dubai, driving her gathering for the most part through intermediaries. An augmenting debasement request finished in a 2003 conviction in a Swiss court. Following United States-facilitated exchanges with President Pervez Musharraf, she came back to Pakistan in 2007 to contend in the 2008 races; her stage underlined regular citizen oversight of the military and resistance to the developing Islamist brutality. After a political rally in Rawalpindi, she was killed; the activist Islamist bunch al-Qaeda guaranteed obligation, in spite of the fact that the contribution of the Pakistani Taliban and rebel components of the knowledge administrations were generally suspected. She was covered at her family catacomb.
Bhutto was a dubious figure. She was regularly condemned as being politically unpracticed and degenerate, and confronted much resistance from Pakistan's Islamist campaign for her secularist and modernizing motivation. In the early long periods of her vocation she was by the by locally well known and furthermore pulled in help from Western countries, for whom she was a victor of vote based system. After death, she came to be viewed as a symbol for ladies' rights because of her political accomplishment in a male-overwhelmed society.

Benazir Bhutto Political Biography | Muhammad Ali Shaikh | Politics English Books

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and before that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was additionally the author of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and filled in as its director until his execution in 1979.
Taught at Berkeley and Oxford, Bhutto prepared as a lawyer at Lincoln's Inn. He entered legislative issues as one of President Iskander Mirza's bureau individuals, before being allocated a few services amid President Ayub Khan's military guideline from 1958. Delegated Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was an advocate of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, prompting war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement finished threats, Bhutto dropped out with Ayub and was sacked from government. He established the PPP in 1967, challenging general decisions held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a dominant part of seats in general, the PPP won a greater part of seats in West Pakistan; the two gatherings were unfit to concur on another constitution specifically on the issue of Six Point Movement which numerous in West Pakistan saw as an approach to separate the country. Subsequent uprisings prompted the withdrawal of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-partnered India in 1971. Bhutto was given over the administration in December 1971 and crisis rule was forced. At the point when Bhutto start revamping Pakistan, he expressed his expectation was to "remake certainty and reconstruct trust in the future".
By July 1972, Bhutto had recouped 43,600 detainees of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held domain subsequent to marking the Simla Agreement. He fortified ties with China and Saudi Arabia, perceived Bangladesh, and facilitated the second Organization of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament consistently endorse another constitution in 1973, whereupon he delegated Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and changed to the recently engaged office of Prime Minister. He likewise assumed a necessary job in starting the nation's atomic programme. However, Bhutto's nationalization of quite a bit of Pakistan's juvenile enterprises, medicinal services, and instructive foundations prompted financial stagnation. In the wake of dissolving commonplace primitive governments in Balochistan was met with distress, Bhutto additionally requested a military task in the territory in 1973, causing a great many non military personnel casualties.
Regardless of common issue, the PPP won parliamentary decisions in 1977 by a wide edge. In any case, the resistance affirmed broad vote gear, and viciousness raised the nation over. On 5 July that equivalent year, Bhutto was ousted by his named armed force boss General Zia-ul-Haq in a military upset before being questionably attempted and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for approving the homicide of a political opponent. While Bhutto remains an antagonistic figure in Pakistan's history, his gathering, the PPP, stays among Pakistan's biggest, his little girl Benazir Bhutto was twice chosen Prime Minister, and his child in-law and Benazir's significant other, Asif Ali Zardari, filled in as President.
Benazir Bhutto 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the primary lady to head a fair government in a Muslim larger part country. Ideologically a liberal and a secularist, she led or co-led the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from the mid 1980s until her death in 2007.
Of blended Sindhi and Kurdish parentage, Bhutto was conceived in Karachi to a politically significant, well off noble family. Her dad, the PPP's author and pioneer Zulfikar, was chosen Prime Minister on a communist stage in 1973. Bhutto learned at Harvard University and the University of Oxford, where she was President of the Oxford Union. She came back to Pakistan, where her dad was expelled in a 1977 military upset and executed. Bhutto and her mom Nusrat assumed responsibility for the PPP and drove the nation's Movement for the Restoration of Democracy; Bhutto was more than once detained by Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's military government and afterward banished to Britain in 1984. She returned in 1986 and—impacted by Thatcherite financial aspects—changed the PPP's stage from a communist to a liberal one, preceding driving it to triumph in the 1988 race. As Prime Minister, her endeavors at change were smothered by preservationist and Islamist powers, including President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the ground-breaking military. Her organization was blamed for defilement and nepotism, and rejected by Khan in 1990. Knowledge administrations fixed that year's decision to guarantee a triumph for the moderate Islamic Democratic Alliance (IJI), after which Bhutto filled in as the Leader of the Opposition.
After the IJI legislature of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was likewise expelled on debasement allegations, Bhutto drove the PPP to triumph in the 1993 decisions. Her second term managed financial privatization and endeavors to propel ladies' rights. Her administration was harmed by a few discussions, including the death of her sibling Murtaza, a fizzled 1995 overthrow, and a further renumeration outrage including her and her significant other Asif Ali Zardari; in light of the last mentioned, the President again expelled her legislature. The PPP lost the 1997 race and in 1998 she went into self-banish in Dubai, driving her gathering for the most part through intermediaries. An augmenting debasement request finished in a 2003 conviction in a Swiss court. Following United States-facilitated exchanges with President Pervez Musharraf, she came back to Pakistan in 2007 to contend in the 2008 races; her stage underlined regular citizen oversight of the military and resistance to the developing Islamist brutality. After a political rally in Rawalpindi, she was killed; the activist Islamist bunch al-Qaeda guaranteed obligation, in spite of the fact that the contribution of the Pakistani Taliban and rebel components of the knowledge administrations were generally suspected. She was covered at her family catacomb.
Bhutto was a dubious figure. She was regularly condemned as being politically unpracticed and degenerate, and confronted much resistance from Pakistan's Islamist campaign for her secularist and modernizing motivation. In the early long periods of her vocation she was by the by locally well known and furthermore pulled in help from Western countries, for whom she was a victor of vote based system. After death, she came to be viewed as a symbol for ladies' rights because of her political accomplishment in a male-overwhelmed society.

Bhutto | A Political Biography | Salman Taseer | Politics English Books

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and before that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was additionally the author of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and filled in as its director until his execution in 1979.
Taught at Berkeley and Oxford, Bhutto prepared as a lawyer at Lincoln's Inn. He entered legislative issues as one of President Iskander Mirza's bureau individuals, before being allocated a few services amid President Ayub Khan's military guideline from 1958. Delegated Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was an advocate of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, prompting war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement finished threats, Bhutto dropped out with Ayub and was sacked from government. He established the PPP in 1967, challenging general decisions held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a dominant part of seats in general, the PPP won a greater part of seats in West Pakistan; the two gatherings were unfit to concur on another constitution specifically on the issue of Six Point Movement which numerous in West Pakistan saw as an approach to separate the country. Subsequent uprisings prompted the withdrawal of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-partnered India in 1971. Bhutto was given over the administration in December 1971 and crisis rule was forced. At the point when Bhutto start revamping Pakistan, he expressed his expectation was to "remake certainty and reconstruct trust in the future".
By July 1972, Bhutto had recouped 43,600 detainees of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held domain subsequent to marking the Simla Agreement. He fortified ties with China and Saudi Arabia, perceived Bangladesh, and facilitated the second Organization of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament consistently endorse another constitution in 1973, whereupon he delegated Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and changed to the recently engaged office of Prime Minister. He likewise assumed a necessary job in starting the nation's atomic programme. However, Bhutto's nationalization of quite a bit of Pakistan's juvenile enterprises, medicinal services, and instructive foundations prompted financial stagnation. In the wake of dissolving commonplace primitive governments in Balochistan was met with distress, Bhutto additionally requested a military task in the territory in 1973, causing a great many non military personnel casualties.
Regardless of common issue, the PPP won parliamentary decisions in 1977 by a wide edge. In any case, the resistance affirmed broad vote gear, and viciousness raised the nation over. On 5 July that equivalent year, Bhutto was ousted by his named armed force boss General Zia-ul-Haq in a military upset before being questionably attempted and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for approving the homicide of a political opponent. While Bhutto remains an antagonistic figure in Pakistan's history, his gathering, the PPP, stays among Pakistan's biggest, his little girl Benazir Bhutto was twice chosen Prime Minister, and his child in-law and Benazir's significant other, Asif Ali Zardari, filled in as President.
Benazir Bhutto 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the primary lady to head a fair government in a Muslim larger part country. Ideologically a liberal and a secularist, she led or co-led the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from the mid 1980s until her death in 2007.
Of blended Sindhi and Kurdish parentage, Bhutto was conceived in Karachi to a politically significant, well off noble family. Her dad, the PPP's author and pioneer Zulfikar, was chosen Prime Minister on a communist stage in 1973. Bhutto learned at Harvard University and the University of Oxford, where she was President of the Oxford Union. She came back to Pakistan, where her dad was expelled in a 1977 military upset and executed. Bhutto and her mom Nusrat assumed responsibility for the PPP and drove the nation's Movement for the Restoration of Democracy; Bhutto was more than once detained by Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's military government and afterward banished to Britain in 1984. She returned in 1986 and—impacted by Thatcherite financial aspects—changed the PPP's stage from a communist to a liberal one, preceding driving it to triumph in the 1988 race. As Prime Minister, her endeavors at change were smothered by preservationist and Islamist powers, including President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the ground-breaking military. Her organization was blamed for defilement and nepotism, and rejected by Khan in 1990. Knowledge administrations fixed that year's decision to guarantee a triumph for the moderate Islamic Democratic Alliance (IJI), after which Bhutto filled in as the Leader of the Opposition.
After the IJI legislature of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was likewise expelled on debasement allegations, Bhutto drove the PPP to triumph in the 1993 decisions. Her second term managed financial privatization and endeavors to propel ladies' rights. Her administration was harmed by a few discussions, including the death of her sibling Murtaza, a fizzled 1995 overthrow, and a further renumeration outrage including her and her significant other Asif Ali Zardari; in light of the last mentioned, the President again expelled her legislature. The PPP lost the 1997 race and in 1998 she went into self-banish in Dubai, driving her gathering for the most part through intermediaries. An augmenting debasement request finished in a 2003 conviction in a Swiss court. Following United States-facilitated exchanges with President Pervez Musharraf, she came back to Pakistan in 2007 to contend in the 2008 races; her stage underlined regular citizen oversight of the military and resistance to the developing Islamist brutality. After a political rally in Rawalpindi, she was killed; the activist Islamist bunch al-Qaeda guaranteed obligation, in spite of the fact that the contribution of the Pakistani Taliban and rebel components of the knowledge administrations were generally suspected. She was covered at her family catacomb.
Bhutto was a dubious figure. She was regularly condemned as being politically unpracticed and degenerate, and confronted much resistance from Pakistan's Islamist campaign for her secularist and modernizing motivation. In the early long periods of her vocation she was by the by locally well known and furthermore pulled in help from Western countries, for whom she was a victor of vote based system. After death, she came to be viewed as a symbol for ladies' rights because of her political accomplishment in a male-overwhelmed society.

Bhutto | The Man & The Martyr | Syed Ghulam Mustafa Shah | Politics English Books

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and before that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was additionally the author of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and filled in as its director until his execution in 1979.
Taught at Berkeley and Oxford, Bhutto prepared as a lawyer at Lincoln's Inn. He entered legislative issues as one of President Iskander Mirza's bureau individuals, before being allocated a few services amid President Ayub Khan's military guideline from 1958. Delegated Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was an advocate of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, prompting war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement finished threats, Bhutto dropped out with Ayub and was sacked from government. He established the PPP in 1967, challenging general decisions held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a dominant part of seats in general, the PPP won a greater part of seats in West Pakistan; the two gatherings were unfit to concur on another constitution specifically on the issue of Six Point Movement which numerous in West Pakistan saw as an approach to separate the country. Subsequent uprisings prompted the withdrawal of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-partnered India in 1971. Bhutto was given over the administration in December 1971 and crisis rule was forced. At the point when Bhutto start revamping Pakistan, he expressed his expectation was to "remake certainty and reconstruct trust in the future".
By July 1972, Bhutto had recouped 43,600 detainees of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held domain subsequent to marking the Simla Agreement. He fortified ties with China and Saudi Arabia, perceived Bangladesh, and facilitated the second Organization of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament consistently endorse another constitution in 1973, whereupon he delegated Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and changed to the recently engaged office of Prime Minister. He likewise assumed a necessary job in starting the nation's atomic programme. However, Bhutto's nationalization of quite a bit of Pakistan's juvenile enterprises, medicinal services, and instructive foundations prompted financial stagnation. In the wake of dissolving commonplace primitive governments in Balochistan was met with distress, Bhutto additionally requested a military task in the territory in 1973, causing a great many non military personnel casualties.
Regardless of common issue, the PPP won parliamentary decisions in 1977 by a wide edge. In any case, the resistance affirmed broad vote gear, and viciousness raised the nation over. On 5 July that equivalent year, Bhutto was ousted by his named armed force boss General Zia-ul-Haq in a military upset before being questionably attempted and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for approving the homicide of a political opponent. While Bhutto remains an antagonistic figure in Pakistan's history, his gathering, the PPP, stays among Pakistan's biggest, his little girl Benazir Bhutto was twice chosen Prime Minister, and his child in-law and Benazir's significant other, Asif Ali Zardari, filled in as President.
Benazir Bhutto 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the primary lady to head a fair government in a Muslim larger part country. Ideologically a liberal and a secularist, she led or co-led the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from the mid 1980s until her death in 2007.
Of blended Sindhi and Kurdish parentage, Bhutto was conceived in Karachi to a politically significant, well off noble family. Her dad, the PPP's author and pioneer Zulfikar, was chosen Prime Minister on a communist stage in 1973. Bhutto learned at Harvard University and the University of Oxford, where she was President of the Oxford Union. She came back to Pakistan, where her dad was expelled in a 1977 military upset and executed. Bhutto and her mom Nusrat assumed responsibility for the PPP and drove the nation's Movement for the Restoration of Democracy; Bhutto was more than once detained by Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's military government and afterward banished to Britain in 1984. She returned in 1986 and—impacted by Thatcherite financial aspects—changed the PPP's stage from a communist to a liberal one, preceding driving it to triumph in the 1988 race. As Prime Minister, her endeavors at change were smothered by preservationist and Islamist powers, including President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the ground-breaking military. Her organization was blamed for defilement and nepotism, and rejected by Khan in 1990. Knowledge administrations fixed that year's decision to guarantee a triumph for the moderate Islamic Democratic Alliance (IJI), after which Bhutto filled in as the Leader of the Opposition.
After the IJI legislature of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was likewise expelled on debasement allegations, Bhutto drove the PPP to triumph in the 1993 decisions. Her second term managed financial privatization and endeavors to propel ladies' rights. Her administration was harmed by a few discussions, including the death of her sibling Murtaza, a fizzled 1995 overthrow, and a further renumeration outrage including her and her significant other Asif Ali Zardari; in light of the last mentioned, the President again expelled her legislature. The PPP lost the 1997 race and in 1998 she went into self-banish in Dubai, driving her gathering for the most part through intermediaries. An augmenting debasement request finished in a 2003 conviction in a Swiss court. Following United States-facilitated exchanges with President Pervez Musharraf, she came back to Pakistan in 2007 to contend in the 2008 races; her stage underlined regular citizen oversight of the military and resistance to the developing Islamist brutality. After a political rally in Rawalpindi, she was killed; the activist Islamist bunch al-Qaeda guaranteed obligation, in spite of the fact that the contribution of the Pakistani Taliban and rebel components of the knowledge administrations were generally suspected. She was covered at her family catacomb.
Bhutto was a dubious figure. She was regularly condemned as being politically unpracticed and degenerate, and confronted much resistance from Pakistan's Islamist campaign for her secularist and modernizing motivation. In the early long periods of her vocation she was by the by locally well known and furthermore pulled in help from Western countries, for whom she was a victor of vote based system. After death, she came to be viewed as a symbol for ladies' rights because of her political accomplishment in a male-overwhelmed society.

Bilateralism | New Directions | Z.A. Bhutto | Politics English Books

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and before that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was additionally the author of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and filled in as its director until his execution in 1979.
Taught at Berkeley and Oxford, Bhutto prepared as a lawyer at Lincoln's Inn. He entered legislative issues as one of President Iskander Mirza's bureau individuals, before being allocated a few services amid President Ayub Khan's military guideline from 1958. Delegated Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was an advocate of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, prompting war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement finished threats, Bhutto dropped out with Ayub and was sacked from government. He established the PPP in 1967, challenging general decisions held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a dominant part of seats in general, the PPP won a greater part of seats in West Pakistan; the two gatherings were unfit to concur on another constitution specifically on the issue of Six Point Movement which numerous in West Pakistan saw as an approach to separate the country. Subsequent uprisings prompted the withdrawal of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-partnered India in 1971. Bhutto was given over the administration in December 1971 and crisis rule was forced. At the point when Bhutto start revamping Pakistan, he expressed his expectation was to "remake certainty and reconstruct trust in the future".
By July 1972, Bhutto had recouped 43,600 detainees of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held domain subsequent to marking the Simla Agreement. He fortified ties with China and Saudi Arabia, perceived Bangladesh, and facilitated the second Organization of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament consistently endorse another constitution in 1973, whereupon he delegated Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and changed to the recently engaged office of Prime Minister. He likewise assumed a necessary job in starting the nation's atomic programme. However, Bhutto's nationalization of quite a bit of Pakistan's juvenile enterprises, medicinal services, and instructive foundations prompted financial stagnation. In the wake of dissolving commonplace primitive governments in Balochistan was met with distress, Bhutto additionally requested a military task in the territory in 1973, causing a great many non military personnel casualties.
Regardless of common issue, the PPP won parliamentary decisions in 1977 by a wide edge. In any case, the resistance affirmed broad vote gear, and viciousness raised the nation over. On 5 July that equivalent year, Bhutto was ousted by his named armed force boss General Zia-ul-Haq in a military upset before being questionably attempted and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for approving the homicide of a political opponent. While Bhutto remains an antagonistic figure in Pakistan's history, his gathering, the PPP, stays among Pakistan's biggest, his little girl Benazir Bhutto was twice chosen Prime Minister, and his child in-law and Benazir's significant other, Asif Ali Zardari, filled in as President.
Benazir Bhutto 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani government official who filled in as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the primary lady to head a fair government in a Muslim larger part country. Ideologically a liberal and a secularist, she led or co-led the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from the mid 1980s until her death in 2007.
Of blended Sindhi and Kurdish parentage, Bhutto was conceived in Karachi to a politically significant, well off noble family. Her dad, the PPP's author and pioneer Zulfikar, was chosen Prime Minister on a communist stage in 1973. Bhutto learned at Harvard University and the University of Oxford, where she was President of the Oxford Union. She came back to Pakistan, where her dad was expelled in a 1977 military upset and executed. Bhutto and her mom Nusrat assumed responsibility for the PPP and drove the nation's Movement for the Restoration of Democracy; Bhutto was more than once detained by Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's military government and afterward banished to Britain in 1984. She returned in 1986 and—impacted by Thatcherite financial aspects—changed the PPP's stage from a communist to a liberal one, preceding driving it to triumph in the 1988 race. As Prime Minister, her endeavors at change were smothered by preservationist and Islamist powers, including President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the ground-breaking military. Her organization was blamed for defilement and nepotism, and rejected by Khan in 1990. Knowledge administrations fixed that year's decision to guarantee a triumph for the moderate Islamic Democratic Alliance (IJI), after which Bhutto filled in as the Leader of the Opposition.
After the IJI legislature of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was likewise expelled on debasement allegations, Bhutto drove the PPP to triumph in the 1993 decisions. Her second term managed financial privatization and endeavors to propel ladies' rights. Her administration was harmed by a few discussions, including the death of her sibling Murtaza, a fizzled 1995 overthrow, and a further renumeration outrage including her and her significant other Asif Ali Zardari; in light of the last mentioned, the President again expelled her legislature. The PPP lost the 1997 race and in 1998 she went into self-banish in Dubai, driving her gathering for the most part through intermediaries. An augmenting debasement request finished in a 2003 conviction in a Swiss court. Following United States-facilitated exchanges with President Pervez Musharraf, she came back to Pakistan in 2007 to contend in the 2008 races; her stage underlined regular citizen oversight of the military and resistance to the developing Islamist brutality. After a political rally in Rawalpindi, she was killed; the activist Islamist bunch al-Qaeda guaranteed obligation, in spite of the fact that the contribution of the Pakistani Taliban and rebel components of the knowledge administrations were generally suspected. She was covered at her family catacomb.
Bhutto was a dubious figure. She was regularly condemned as being politically unpracticed and degenerate, and confronted much resistance from Pakistan's Islamist campaign for her secularist and modernizing motivation. In the early long periods of her vocation she was by the by locally well known and furthermore pulled in help from Western countries, for whom she was a victor of vote based system. After death, she came to be viewed as a symbol for ladies' rights because of her political accomplishment in a male-overwhelmed society.